A good lab report abstract is concise— usually no more than words. It should open with a brief background or introduction, then state the problem or purpose of the research. Next, describe the methods that were used to conduct the research. Finally, summarize the results and implications of the study WebBy ordering from us a sample lab report biology on such complicated areas of study as chemistry, health care, statistics, biology, physics, and other disciplines, you will boost WebCell Membrane and Temperature. 5 pages ( words), Lab Report. Nobody downloaded yet. Preview sample. DNA Damage Induced by Satraplatin. 5 pages ( words), Lab Web · 40 Useful Lab Report Examples (& Free Templates) August 1, 11 Mins Read. Those who have conducted laboratory tests as students or professionals are Web · Ib biology lab_report_sample 1. IB1 Biology SL Petra Smith September 17th / 19th, Will increasing the salinity of the surrounding solution (hypertonic to the ... read more
Hence, the cardiac cycle depicts the heart changes as blood flows in various chambers. The average value of the heart rate of an adult patient is between 60 and beats per minute. Shaffer and Ginsberg contend that heart rate variation is a function of the interactions between the cardiac system and the brain and the vigorous processes of the autonomic nervous system. Beta-blockers contribute to vasodilation while reducing the impacts of adrenaline, decreasing the rate at which the heart pumps blood. Anxiety directly increases the adrenaline levels, increasing the heart rate. The stroke volume encompasses the blood pumped out of the heart for every ventricular contraction or heartbeat. Hyperthyroidism, exercise, and heart muscle disease such as cardiomyopathy.
In this case, exercise increases the cardiac output by increasing the adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in the blood and the sympathetic tone, elevating the heart rate. Besides, exercise increases the stroke volume, increasing the cardiac output. Bruss, Z. Physiology, stroke volume. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island FL : StatPearls Publishing. Caffeine affects autonomic control of heart rate and blood pressure recovery after aerobic exercise in young adults: A crossover study. Scientific Reports , 7 1 , Physiology, cardiac output. Physiology, cardiac cycle. An overview of heart rate variability metrics and norms. This will help the reader understand the context of the experiment and why it is important.
This is the main question that you were trying to answer with your experiment. This will give the reader an understanding of how the data was collected and how it relates to the hypothesis. The materials and methods section of a biology lab report is where you describe how the experiment was conducted. This includes providing a list of any materials that were used. You should also describe the steps that were taken during the experiment, including any controls that were used. This section should be written in past tense and should be as concise as possible. It is important to include enough detail so that someone else could replicate the experiment, but you should avoid including irrelevant information. If you used any specialized equipment, you should also include a description of how it was used.
By following these tips, you can ensure that your materials and methods section is clear and informative. The results section of a biology lab report is where you will present the data that you have collected during your experiment. This data can take a variety of forms, including tables, graphs, and diagrams. It is important to clearly and concisely present this data, as it will be the basis for your discussion in the following section. In addition to presenting the data, you should also discuss any observations that you made during the experiment. For example, did you notice any unexpected results? Was there anything that you struggled to understand? By raising these questions, you can guide the reader through your thought process and help them to understand your conclusions.
The discussion section of a biology lab report is where you explain the significance of the results and discuss any limitations of the study. This is your opportunity to show that you understand the experiment and what it was trying to achieve. To do this, you need to:. Writing a good lab report discussion section will take some practice, but it will be well worth the effort. By taking the time to write a good discussion, you will be able to demonstrate your understanding of the experiment and show that you can think critically about the data. After completing a biology lab, it is important to write a conclusion. The conclusion should summarize the findings of the experiment and state whether the hypothesis was supported or not.
To write a good conclusion, it is necessary to first understand what role the conclusion plays in a lab report. In any science lab report , a conclusion is important because it allows the reader to see the overall purpose of the experiment and how it relates to the scientific principle being tested. Additionally, it helps to solidify the findings of the experiment by providing a concise summary of the data. Finally, the conclusion provides an opportunity to reflect on what was learned from the experiment and how it can be applied in future situations. With this in mind, here are some tips for writing a successful conclusion for a biology lab paper.
Tables and figures should be numbered and captioned, and the source of any borrowed material should be included in the References section. The effect of temperature on enzyme activity was studied by measuring the amount of product produced by the enzyme at different temperatures. The results showed that enzyme activity increased as the temperature increased, up to a certain point. Take care not to include too much detail, but they still need to be enough clarity to help a third-party follow your instructions. Preparing an extract of catecholase, we used a washed, skinned, and diced potato and we used a scale in order to get precisely 30 grams of potato. We also poured ml of water into a beaker. We added water to the potato, removed the cover of a kitchen blender, and added both ingredients to a blender, we then put the cover back on and pressed the start button, noting the time.
Then we pushed the button again to stop the blender. We used four layers of cheesecloth to filter the result and then we stored the obtained extract in a clean, closed container. The results section of an APA format biology lab report is where you state the result of your experiment clearly. You're expected to list the details of your development in an orderly fashion - according to how they happened. The facts here may seem like a story you intend to tell another person. But don't be overly narrative. State only important details and compile them with as few words as possible. When writing this section, you should include all the tables or figures related to the project you've conducted.
Also, don't forget about charts, graphs, and other data illustrations. To further explain the information here, it's a great idea to include a clear summary of the information in the images you have created. Before you get started here, take your time to organize all the facts you have gathered from the experiment. However, it's not time to analyze your end-results. Also, avoid describing your methods here. All that's needed from you in this section is to figure out the trends that follow the end-results you have obtained from your work. Note these trends and document them to help your explanation in this section. Do your best to draw the reader's attention to the patterns of the project.
Experimental group. Absorbance nm. When you are done with the results of your experiment, the next thing to work on is your discussions. In simple terms, the discussions section summarizes the entire investigation. Yes, you will give a detailed account of all the information about the project here. This section allows you to discuss and interpret the news in your research fully. Here, you'll answer questions such as; What did you learn? What were the results of the experiment? Was the hypothesis of your experiment correct or not, and why? Were there any errors? By answering all these questions properly, you will give any reader a clear understanding of what you were trying to achieve from the experiment, the eventual result, and what you have gained from the overall experience.
If any changes could be made to improve the outcome of your investigation, you could suggest them here. An effective way to express your ideas in this part of your biology report is to compare the results and your expected findings. Furthermore, check through the entire process again and note any possible changes that could have been made. In this section, make sure your interpretation is original and not biased to support your hypothesis. You can create content from a general perspective - neither supporting nor disregarding the hypothesis of your experiment. Don't forget to add some original ideas and finish up with a concluding statement on the experiment.
This is to inform the reader that you've reached the concluding part of your study. Proteins catalyze reactions by bringing down the activation energy of the reaction; catecholase, an enzyme discovered in potatoes, changes catechol to benzoquinone with the presence of oxygen. We expected that more benzoquinone would be shaped by the presence of a more noteworthy measure of catecholase. This theory was proven by the outcomes acquired. Catalysts are influenced by the environment — the level of pH present in the environment is one factor that can modify chemicals while the rate at which the compound shape item is moderated or accelerated depending on how near to the standard the environment is.
The final key thing to master when learning to write a formal lab report is proper citation techniques. Without a citation section, your work will be considered to be incomplete. Your report needs to comply with APA biology lab report format. There are different biology lab report citation formats that could be used in college biology lab reports. However, you'll be using internal citations here. You can check an old lab report to learn how to cite sources in your study, or you could ask your instructor for the preferable citation technique.
Moreover, all references are expected to be a part of the text. These references may include lab manuals, articles, books, etc. Stuck with finding the right title? Get plenty of fresh and catchy topic ideas and pick the perfect one with PapersOwl Title Generator. There may be times when it would be difficult to come up with the right title for your school biology report. So, what do you do when this happens? The best solution is to write your title to contain essential details about your study.
The effects of jumpamine chloride on jumping performance in two species of frogs of the genus Rana. Jumpamine chloride JCl- is a natural waste product of muscle metabolism in many species of frogs. Phrogsucker et al. This result lead to a number of studies attempting to identify the advantage of reabsorption of this product. One recent study showed that injection of JCl- into the bloodstream increased muscle mass in the grass frog Rana pipiens Hylaflex and Smith, Anurheight was the first to demonstrate an actual improvement in performance capability, by showing that swimming performance in Xenopus laevis was improved by adding JCl- to the diet. The present study was carried out in order to see if JCl- had any direct effects on jumping performance in frogs of the genus Rana.
We hypothesized that the increased muscle mass shown in earlier studies Hylaflex and Smith, would result in improved jumping distance. Such a result would suggest the biological function of JCl- reabsorption. We also investigated the influence of temperature in modifying JCl- levels, which then induced changes in jumping performance. Demonstrating temperature effects would shed light on the underlying mechanism involved in the changes in muscle induced by JCl- Based on earlier studies we hypothesized that JCl- acts by increasing the activity of a number of enzymes associated with muscle contraction.
If this is the case, we hypothesize that jumping distance will improve exponentially with temperature over a certain temperature range. We tested the effects of JCl- on jumping performance by injecting the drug into the bloodstream and measuring average jumping distance under specific conditions. We looked at temperature effects by carrying out the same experiments at a range of different ambient temperatures. We conducted the study on two different species to see if the effects observed were species-specific or more general in nature. Ten specimens of Rans pipiens were given 1. All frogs were maintained at C for 1 day in 1 inch of water. At this time each frog was placed on an open floor and induced to jump 2 times by slapping the ground behind the frog.
The jump distance was defined as the sum of two jumps. The same procedure was repeated using Rana iwanna. Each of the JCl- treated frogs was placed in a temperature controlled tank, ranging from 0 to C in intervals of C. One control frog was placed in the tank with each treated frog. The frogs were left in the temperature controlled tanks for 24 h, and then tested, as above, for jumping performance. Each frog was tested 10 times. The effects of JCl- on jumping distance depended on the species tested. These results are summarized in Figure 1.
It is clear from this figure that JCl- had a striking impact on Rana pipiens , but had little or no effect on Rana iwanna. The mean 2-jump distances at C for Rana pipiens were 2. The mean distance was significantly longer for the treated frogs t-test, O. Rana iwanna the mean for untreated frogs was 2. The relationship between temperature and jump distance is shown for Rana pipiens in figure 2. The same relationship for Rana pipiens is shown in figure 3. It is clear from Fig. pipiens jump distance increases linearly with temperature.
For R. iwanna temperature also affects jump distance in an approximately linear fashion, but does not begin to have an effect until the temperature exceeds 30 0C. JCl- has the clear effect of increasing jump distance in both frog species see figures 1,2 and 3. These results support our original hypothesis that JCl- would improve jumping performance. The effect on jumping distance is clearly temperature-dependent. However, there are differences between the species in how this effect appears. For example, in R. iwanna no increase in performance occurs until the temperature exceeds C. This explains why no significant difference in jumping distance was observed at room temperature Fig. The nature of the relationship between temperature increase and JCl- effects on jumping distance was not consistent with our original hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism of action of JCl-.
We had proposed that its effect might be an enhancement of activity of certain enzymes. This led us to predict an exponential performance increase with temperature. The linear increase we observed is not consistent with the proposed mechanism. It suggests that JCl- may be directly acting on the mechanical properties of the muscles themselves. Such a mechanism has been proposed for the action of the hormone gogetemall in the tree lizard Philanthropus fabricus Herpbrain and Phutz, This suggests an interesting line of study for future experiments in which JCl- would be administered to isolated muscle preparations and its direct effects on contractile elements observed directly. The observation that weight loss occurs when frogs are exposed to higher temperatures also suggests an effect of JCl- on the overall metabolism of frogs.
We are currently carrying out a study to test the direct effects of JCl- on metabolic rate. The results described above are important for understanding the role of JCl- in the natural biology of these frogs. In Rana pipiens reabsorption of JCl- will clearly lead to increased jumping ability which can be expected to improve its survival chances. Moreover this advantage will occur at temperatures during which it is normally active 0C. The comparison with R. iwanna is interesting however. iwanna is not normally active above C. Nonetheless R. iwanna absorbs JCl- from its bladder.
This strongly suggests that improved jumping performance alone cannot account for the evolution of the general tendency of frogs to reabsorb this substance. It would be very interesting to compare the relative amount of reabsorption in frogs active at temperatures where the effects on jumping performance occur versus those where it does not. The results presented here also have serious implications for the use of JCl- in frog jumping contests. Twainson expressed concern that the increased occurrence of doping with this drug in frog jumping contests may have dire consequences for the sport. Here we clearly show that this drug has the potential to influence the outcomes. The seriousness of the effect on the results clearly depends on the temperature at which contests are held, as well as the species involved.
Moreover we have recently found that use of JCl- compromises the health of our frogs. Our results support the conclusions of Twainson , and suggest that government regulation and drug testing may be in order. Anurheight, L. The swimming abilities of frogs. Academic Press. New York. Herpbrain, K. Why do hot lizards run faster? Journal of Hyperactive Reptiles. and A. Is JCl- a frog muscle builder? Journal of Frog Kinesiology. Reabsorption of certain biochemicals from the frog bladder: Peeing is believing. Copious Smith, A.
JCl- and climbing ability in tree frogs. Biotropica Twainson, C. Frog jumping and drugs: an institution under attack The American Unnaturalist Biology Department. Breadcrumbs Biology Department Sample lab report. Page Menu. Sample lab report. The effects of jumpamine chloride on jumping performance in two species of frogs of the genus Rana Leo Lizardgazer, Introduction Jumpamine chloride JCl- is a natural waste product of muscle metabolism in many species of frogs. Methods Effects on jump distance: Ten specimens of Rans pipiens were given 1.
The effects of temperature: Each of the JCl- treated frogs was placed in a temperature controlled tank, ranging from 0 to C in intervals of C. Results The effects of JCl- on jumping distance depended on the species tested. References Anurheight, L.
Web · 40 Useful Lab Report Examples (& Free Templates) August 1, 11 Mins Read. Those who have conducted laboratory tests as students or professionals are A good lab report abstract is concise— usually no more than words. It should open with a brief background or introduction, then state the problem or purpose of the research. Next, describe the methods that were used to conduct the research. Finally, summarize the results and implications of the study Web · Ib biology lab_report_sample 1. IB1 Biology SL Petra Smith September 17th / 19th, Will increasing the salinity of the surrounding solution (hypertonic to the Web · Lab report discussion example 1: Below is an example of a discussion in a lab report on the effect of caffeine on heart rate. This study aimed to investigate the WebBy ordering from us a sample lab report biology on such complicated areas of study as chemistry, health care, statistics, biology, physics, and other disciplines, you will boost Web · Sample Lab Report #2; Writing conclusion paragraphs in a science lab report; The Lab Report – University of Toronto Writing Advice; How to Write a Scientific ... read more
Home Blog Lab Report Writing Guides. An important point to remember is that you're not allowed to stretch your opening too much or try to prove a point while writing it. It is important to be objective here and to avoid speculating about things that are beyond the scope of your data. By following these tips, you can ensure that your materials and methods section is clear and informative. The effect of temperature on enzyme activity was studied by measuring the amount of product produced by the enzyme at different temperatures.Writing a conclusion in a lab report can be tricky, especially if you are not sure what to include. This piece will reveal a detailed guide and clear instructions on how to write a formal lab report on biology. Here, you're expected to fully explain everything, including measurement procedures, quantities, and techniques. Proteins catalyze reactions by bringing down the activation energy of the reaction; catecholase, an enzyme discovered in potatoes, changes catechol to benzoquinone with the presence of oxygen. Quick Navigation. Need biology lab report sample with writing a lab report?