Simply put, the case method is a discussion of real-life situations that business executives have faced. On average, you'll attend three to four different classes a day, for a total of about six · A case study is a research approach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context. It is an established research · In case study method, researchers pose a specific question about an individual or group to test their theories or hypothesis. Understand the case study research design and · Consider the following tools for analysis to help you answer the questions. Case Overview 1. SWOT Industry Analysis 2. DEPICTS Analysis (European Context) 3. ICEDRIPS When multiple cases are examined then it is called a comparative case study. A case study as a general approach to understanding phenomena can involve many specific methodologies ... read more
In fact, they should be beautifully and professionally designed. This means the normal rules of design apply. Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study. In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and stand-out icons. Business and business management case studies should encompass strategic insights alongside anecdotal and qualitative findings, like in the business case study examples below. When it comes to writing a case study, make sure you approach the company holistically and analyze everything from their social media to their sales.
Think about every avenue your product or service has been of use to your case study company, and ask them about the impact this has had on their wider company goals. In business case study examples like the one above, we can see that the company has been thought about holistically simply by the use of icons. By combining social media icons with icons that show in-person communication we know that this is a well-researched and thorough case study. To create a compelling case study, identify the key takeaways from your research. Use catchy language to sum up this information in a sentence, and present this sentence at the top of your page.
You can use a large, bold, contrasting font to help this information stand out from the page and provide interest. Upload your fonts and brand colors to Venngage using the My Brand Kit tool and see them automatically applied to your designs. The heading is the ideal place to put the most impactful information, as this is the first thing that people will read. It makes customers want to read more to find out how exactly lead quality was increased by such a massive amount. Pick out a catchy sentence or phrase, or the key piece of information your interview subject provided and use that as a way to draw a potential customer in.
Charts are an excellent way to visualize data and to bring statistics and information to life. Charts make information easier to understand and to illustrate trends or patterns. Making charts is even easier with Venngage. In this consulting case study example, we can see that a chart has been used to demonstrate the difference in lead value within the Lead Elves case study. Adding a chart here helps break up the information and add visual value to the case study. CREATE THIS CASE STUDY TEMPLATE. You could use a Gantt chart or a project timeline to show how you have managed the project successfully.
CREATE THIS GANTT CHART. Using icons, graphics, photos, or patterns helps create a much more engaging design. With this Blue Cap case study icons, colors, and impactful pattern designs have been used to create an engaging design that catches your eye. To add an extra layer of authenticity you can include a direct quote from your customer within your case study. You can either lift part of the conversation or interview, or you can specifically request a quote. Make sure to ask for permission before using the quote. This design uses a bright contrasting speech bubble to show that it includes a direct quote, and helps the quote stand out from the rest of the text.
You should update your business case study examples often if you are sharing them on your website. Content marketing is also a valuable way to earn consumer trust. Case studies are an effective marketing technique to engage potential customers and help build trust. By producing case studies featuring your current clients or customers, you are showcasing how your tool or product can be used. In addition to being a good way to gather positive testimonials from existing customers, business case studies are good educational resources and can be shared amongst your company or team, and used as a reference for future projects. To create a great case study, you should think strategically.
The first step, before starting your case study research, is to think about what you aim to learn or what you aim to prove. You might be aiming to learn how a company makes sales or develops a new product. If this is the case, base your questions around this. You can learn more about writing a case study from our extensive guide. START CREATING FOR FREE. Product Solutions Templates Learn Pricing. Features Explore our product features. Infographics Presentations Flyers Posters Banners White Papers Diagrams Roadmaps Ebooks Timeline Infographic Maker Process Infographics Coupons Certificates Cards Menus Business Plans Brochures Resumes Comparison Infographics Nonprofit Infographics Reports Youtube Banners Organizational Charts Invitations Flowcharts Mind Maps Social Media Posts Proposals Logos Letterheads Newsletters.
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Get Started with Venngage Become a Venngage Pro. Infographics for beginners Become an Infographic Pro. Help Center Get help and support. Plan Types. Log in Sign up for free. Log in Sign up. What we offer. White Papers. Timeline Infographic Maker. Process Infographics. Business Plans. Comparison Infographics. Nonprofit Infographics. Youtube Banners. Organizational Charts. Mind Maps. Social Media Posts. Executive Leadership. Human Resources. Product Development. Project Management. Real Estate. Infographic Templates. Timeline Templates. Report Templates. Diagram Templates. Presentation Templates. From the macro-environmental analysis, we can see that one of the most influential threats for the agency is the fact that all-inclusive vacations are now perceived as a luxury due to the strains the financial crisis has put on the economy and population.
Thus their customer base has dwindled. There are a number of opportunities the agency can use to counter both the industry and macro-environmental threats, such as trying to find new partners in the three new booming destinations, considering new customer segments retired people, businesses, etc. With all this information, the SWOT analysis and the Confrontation Matrix can be completed. The SWOT analysis includes all the relevant strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the agency. The Confrontation Matrix uses the environmental factors from the SWOT analysis to help build up relevant strategic options for the agency.
These alternative strategies are built by making the following combinations of factors: Strengths — Opportunities attacking strategies , Strengths — Threats building strengths for attacking strategy , Weaknesses — Opportunities defensive strategy , and Weaknesses — Threats building strengths for defensive strategy. Two examples of strategies that can be built with the help of the confrontation matrix: ST strategy : Improve the CRM by adding loyalty programs in order to ameliorate the low brand loyalty of customers. Use marketing to make the new program known to the customers. Now that we have the two alternative strategies, we can use the canvas and ArchiMate to see how they would impact the agency. The first strategy will add to the three new factors to the business model of Travel Co.
This separation is made in order to introduce the Focused marketing which is meant to improve the awareness of their customers about the new program. This is supposed to have an indirect effect on the revenue streams of the agency by raising and stabilizing their monthly incomes during their main sales seasons. This is a small example, based on this strategy, of how the changes in the business model of the agency would influence their architecture. The CRM business function will have a new business collaboration concept associated to it and the Marketing function will be now specialized into two new business functions, Focused marketing and General marketing. The second strategy will introduce four new concepts into the business model of Travel Co.
in the Customer segments and Value propositions building blocks. By following this strategy, the agency will try to focus on servicing the needs of Retired people and of Businesses with two new tailored offerings: Off-season offering and Business specialized offering , in addition to their existing customer segment and offering. The main change that can be seen is with the business actors and the value of the agency. There will be two new concepts introduced to both of those to represent the two new customer segments and their associated value proposition. Business Capability Maps are used for a variety of strategic change purposes such as to align business leaders and other….
In our previous blog in our series on Capabilities and Capability-based Planning, we discussed the relationships between strategy, business models…. Since the foundation of the Business Architecture Guild a little over a decade ago, its Business Architecture Body of Knowledge…. Strategic Use of Business Models: Case Study Feb 21, Written by. ArchiMate Business Architecture Business Model Management. Strategic Use of Business Models: Case Study This is the last post of this blog series which includes the case study. The current strategy The case study follows the example of the fictitious organization Travel Co.
According to the Value Propositions model, the current competitive strategies of the three main competitors in the market are as follows: Travel Co. The canvas For the past few years, Travel Co. Value proposition : all-inclusive travel packages, customization, services e. Key activities : sales, marketing, finding and designing new travel packages, CRM Key resources : skilled employees, good reputation and brand name Key partners : airlines, hotels, resorts, tour operators, insurance providers Cost structure : Salaries, marketing, rent and utilities The business model by itself can only provide a limited amount of reconfiguration options for the agency.
Threat of new entrants low : medium capital costs of entry, medium acceptability of new brands, market is stagnating Threat of substitute products high : two main alternatives from the main competitors better services from JourneyTime, online purchasable tickets from Tourism Inc. Threats: Political : political instability, elections coming soon Economic : increase in unemployment, economic slowdown, increase in inflation Socio-cultural : all-inclusive vacations are perceived as a luxury Technological : noise pollution from airplanes is receiving more awareness Opportunities: Political : minimum wage law Economic : better infrastructure, three new booming destinations Socio-cultural : increase in number of retired people, air transportation seen as safe, increased demand in three areas of the country Technological : information and communication innovations, innovations for air travel higher speed, lower cost, higher capacity, longer distances From the macro-environmental analysis, we can see that one of the most influential threats for the agency is the fact that all-inclusive vacations are now perceived as a luxury due to the strains the financial crisis has put on the economy and population.
Strengths All-inclusive offering Partner network Market sensing and positioning CRM Weaknesses Customer base variable Seasonality of offering Online presence website Customer segmentation Opportunities Small agencies going bankrupt and selling valuable resources Three new destinations new partners New segment retired people, businesses Innovations in transportation higher capacity and range Threats Low brand loyalty Removal of commission by airlines Substitute products offered by competitors All-inclusive vacations perceived as a luxury The Confrontation Matrix uses the environmental factors from the SWOT analysis to help build up relevant strategic options for the agency.
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The new PMC design is here! Learn more about navigating our updated article layout. The PMC legacy view will also be available for a limited time. Federal government websites often end in. gov or. The site is secure. The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach.
The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. The case study approach is particularly useful to employ when there is a need to obtain an in-depth appreciation of an issue, event or phenomenon of interest, in its natural real-life context. Our aim in writing this piece is to provide insights into when to consider employing this approach and an overview of key methodological considerations in relation to the design, planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of case studies. The illustrative 'grand round', 'case report' and 'case series' have a long tradition in clinical practice and research. Presenting detailed critiques, typically of one or more patients, aims to provide insights into aspects of the clinical case and, in doing so, illustrate broader lessons that may be learnt.
In research, the conceptually-related case study approach can be used, for example, to describe in detail a patient's episode of care, explore professional attitudes to and experiences of a new policy initiative or service development or more generally to 'investigate contemporary phenomena within its real-life context' [ 1 ]. Based on our experiences of conducting a range of case studies, we reflect on when to consider using this approach, discuss the key steps involved and illustrate, with examples, some of the practical challenges of attaining an in-depth understanding of a 'case' as an integrated whole.
In keeping with previously published work, we acknowledge the importance of theory to underpin the design, selection, conduct and interpretation of case studies[ 2 ]. In so doing, we make passing reference to the different epistemological approaches used in case study research by key theoreticians and methodologists in this field of enquiry. This paper is structured around the following main questions: What is a case study? What are case studies used for? How are case studies conducted? What are the potential pitfalls and how can these be avoided?
Example of a case study investigating the reasons for differences in recruitment rates of minority ethnic people in asthma research[ 3 ]. Example of a case study investigating the process of planning and implementing a service in Primary Care Organisations[ 4 ]. Example of a case study investigating the introduction of the electronic health records[ 5 ]. Example of a case study investigating the formal and informal ways students learn about patient safety[ 6 ]. A case study is a research approach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context. It is an established research design that is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences. It is for this reason sometimes referred to as a "naturalistic" design; this is in contrast to an "experimental" design such as a randomised controlled trial in which the investigator seeks to exert control over and manipulate the variable s of interest.
Stake's work has been particularly influential in defining the case study approach to scientific enquiry. He has helpfully characterised three main types of case study: intrinsic , instrumental and collective [ 8 ]. An intrinsic case study is typically undertaken to learn about a unique phenomenon. The researcher should define the uniqueness of the phenomenon, which distinguishes it from all others. In contrast, the instrumental case study uses a particular case some of which may be better than others to gain a broader appreciation of an issue or phenomenon.
The collective case study involves studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in an attempt to generate a still broader appreciation of a particular issue. These are however not necessarily mutually exclusive categories. According to Yin, case studies can be used to explain, describe or explore events or phenomena in the everyday contexts in which they occur[ 1 ]. In contrast to experimental designs, which seek to test a specific hypothesis through deliberately manipulating the environment like, for example, in a randomised controlled trial giving a new drug to randomly selected individuals and then comparing outcomes with controls ,[ 9 ] the case study approach lends itself well to capturing information on more explanatory ' how ', 'what' and ' why ' questions, such as ' how is the intervention being implemented and received on the ground?
The case study approach can offer additional insights into what gaps exist in its delivery or why one implementation strategy might be chosen over another. Or whether the wish is to obtain a more naturalistic understanding of an issue? The former is ideally studied using a controlled experimental design, whereas the latter is more appropriately studied using a case study design. Whilst such a schema can be conceptually helpful, it may be appropriate to draw on more than one approach in any case study, particularly in the context of conducting health services research. Doolin has, for example, noted that in the context of undertaking interpretative case studies, researchers can usefully draw on a critical, reflective perspective which seeks to take into account the wider social and political environment that has shaped the case[ 11 ].
Here, we focus on the main stages of research activity when planning and undertaking a case study; the crucial stages are: defining the case; selecting the case s ; collecting and analysing the data; interpreting data; and reporting the findings. Carefully formulated research question s , informed by the existing literature and a prior appreciation of the theoretical issues and setting s , are all important in appropriately and succinctly defining the case[ 8 , 12 ]. Crucially, each case should have a pre-defined boundary which clarifies the nature and time period covered by the case study i. A theory driven approach to defining the case may help generate knowledge that is potentially transferable to a range of clinical contexts and behaviours; using theory is also likely to result in a more informed appreciation of, for example, how and why interventions have succeeded or failed[ 13 ].
Example of a checklist for rating a case study proposal[ 8 ]. Our focus was on how the technology was being implemented. However, if the primary research interest had been on the social and organisational dimensions of implementation, we might have defined our case differently as a grouping of healthcare professionals e. The precise beginning and end of the case may however prove difficult to define. Pursuing this same example, when does the process of implementation and adoption of an electronic health record system really begin or end? Such judgements will inevitably be influenced by a range of factors, including the research question, theory of interest, the scope and richness of the gathered data and the resources available to the research team.
The decision on how to select the case s to study is a very important one that merits some reflection. In an intrinsic case study, the case is selected on its own merits[ 8 ]. The case is selected not because it is representative of other cases, but because of its uniqueness, which is of genuine interest to the researchers. In another example of an intrinsic case study, Hellstrom et al. For an instrumental case study, selecting a "typical" case can work well[ 8 ]. In contrast to the intrinsic case study, the particular case which is chosen is of less importance than selecting a case that allows the researcher to investigate an issue or phenomenon. For example, in order to gain an understanding of doctors' responses to health policy initiatives, Som undertook an instrumental case study interviewing clinicians who had a range of responsibilities for clinical governance in one NHS acute hospital trust[ 17 ].
Sampling a "deviant" or "atypical" case may however prove even more informative, potentially enabling the researcher to identify causal processes, generate hypotheses and develop theory. In collective or multiple case studies, a number of cases are carefully selected. Choosing a "typical" case may enable the findings to be generalised to theory i. analytical generalisation or to test theory by replicating the findings in a second or even a third case i. replication logic [ 1 ]. Yin suggests two or three literal replications i. predicting similar results if the theory is straightforward and five or more if the theory is more subtle.
However, critics might argue that selecting 'cases' in this way is insufficiently reflexive and ill-suited to the complexities of contemporary healthcare organisations. The selected case study site s should allow the research team access to the group of individuals, the organisation, the processes or whatever else constitutes the chosen unit of analysis for the study. Access is therefore a central consideration; the researcher needs to come to know the case study site s well and to work cooperatively with them. Selected cases need to be not only interesting but also hospitable to the inquiry [ 8 ] if they are to be informative and answer the research question s. Case study sites may also be pre-selected for the researcher, with decisions being influenced by key stakeholders.
This prominent stakeholder had already selected the NHS sites through a competitive bidding process to be early adopters of the electronic health record systems and had negotiated contracts that detailed the deployment timelines. It is also important to consider in advance the likely burden and risks associated with participation for those who or the site s which comprise the case study. Of particular importance is the obligation for the researcher to think through the ethical implications of the study e. The outcome of providing this information might be that the emotive burden associated with participation, or the organisational disruption associated with supporting the fieldwork, is considered so high that the individuals or sites decide against participation.
In our example of evaluating implementations of electronic health record systems, given the restricted number of early adopter sites available to us, we sought purposively to select a diverse range of implementation cases among those that were available[ 5 ]. We chose a mixture of teaching, non-teaching and Foundation Trust hospitals, and examples of each of the three electronic health record systems procured centrally by the NPfIT. At one recruited site, it quickly became apparent that access was problematic because of competing demands on that organisation. Recognising the importance of full access and co-operative working for generating rich data, the research team decided not to pursue work at that site and instead to focus on other recruited sites.
In order to develop a thorough understanding of the case, the case study approach usually involves the collection of multiple sources of evidence, using a range of quantitative e. questionnaires, audits and analysis of routinely collected healthcare data and more commonly qualitative techniques e. interviews, focus groups and observations. The use of multiple sources of data data triangulation has been advocated as a way of increasing the internal validity of a study i. the extent to which the method is appropriate to answer the research question [ 8 , 18 - 21 ]. Brazier and colleagues used a mixed-methods case study approach to investigate the impact of a cancer care programme[ 22 ].
Here, quantitative measures were collected with questionnaires before, and five months after, the start of the intervention which did not yield any statistically significant results. Qualitative interviews with patients however helped provide an insight into potentially beneficial process-related aspects of the programme, such as greater, perceived patient involvement in care. The authors reported how this case study approach provided a number of contextual factors likely to influence the effectiveness of the intervention and which were not likely to have been obtained from quantitative methods alone.
In collective or multiple case studies, data collection needs to be flexible enough to allow a detailed description of each individual case to be developed e. the nature of different cancer care programmes , before considering the emerging similarities and differences in cross-case comparisons e. to explore why one programme is more effective than another. It is important that data sources from different cases are, where possible, broadly comparable for this purpose even though they may vary in nature and depth. Making sense and offering a coherent interpretation of the typically disparate sources of data whether qualitative alone or together with quantitative is far from straightforward.
Repeated reviewing and sorting of the voluminous and detail-rich data are integral to the process of analysis. In collective case studies, it is helpful to analyse data relating to the individual component cases first, before making comparisons across cases. Attention needs to be paid to variations within each case and, where relevant, the relationship between different causes, effects and outcomes[ 23 ]. Data will need to be organised and coded to allow the key issues, both derived from the literature and emerging from the dataset, to be easily retrieved at a later stage. An initial coding frame can help capture these issues and can be applied systematically to the whole dataset with the aid of a qualitative data analysis software package.
· In case study method, researchers pose a specific question about an individual or group to test their theories or hypothesis. Understand the case study research design and · Consider the following tools for analysis to help you answer the questions. Case Overview 1. SWOT Industry Analysis 2. DEPICTS Analysis (European Context) 3. ICEDRIPS · For this case study, I will exemplify the use of the first approach. In order to use the SWOT analysis effectively we need to know enough information about both the internal and When multiple cases are examined then it is called a comparative case study. A case study as a general approach to understanding phenomena can involve many specific methodologies Simply put, the case method is a discussion of real-life situations that business executives have faced. On average, you'll attend three to four different classes a day, for a total of about six · A case study is a research approach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context. It is an established research ... read more
Anonymise appropriately as cases are often easily identifiable to insiders, informed consent of participants. nbib Format: AMA APA MLA NLM. Making sense and offering a coherent interpretation of the typically disparate sources of data whether qualitative alone or together with quantitative is far from straightforward. Unlike quantitative or experimental research, a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. Open in a separate window.Home Knowledge Base Methodology What Is a Case Study? A case study research design usually involves qualitative methodscase study models, but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Table 7 Example of a checklist for rating a case study proposal[ 8 case study models. The case is selected not because it is representative of other cases, but because of its uniqueness, which is of genuine interest to the researchers. Comparison Infographics. CREATE THIS CASE STUDY TEMPLATE.