Electronic projects for engineering students

Structure of research article

Structure for Research Articles (Qualitative),Preparing your submission

Web · The basic structure is outlined below: Author and author's professional affiliation is identified; Introduction; Literature review section (a discussion about Web · A research paper structured in APA or MLA are the most popular ones. Introduction The importance of the problem. The description of the current situation. List Web · A typical research paper will contain the following sections in a sequence. (1) Introduction; (2) Material and methods and (3) Results and discussion. This is sometimes Web · The paper will ask the question, then answer it. The key to successful scientific writing is getting the structure of the paper right. The basic structure of a typical research ... read more

The key to successful scientific writing is getting the structure of the paper right. The basic structure of a typical research paper is the sequence of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sometimes abbreviated as IMRAD. Each section addresses a different objective. The authors state: i the problem they intend to address—in other terms, the research question—in the Introduction; ii what they did to answer the question in the Methods section; iii what they observed in the Results section; and iv what they think the results mean in the Discussion. In turn, each basic section addresses several topics, and may be divided into subsections Table 1. In the Introduction, the authors should explain the rationale and background to the study.

What is the research question, and why is it important to ask it? While it is neither necessary nor desirable to provide a full-blown review of the literature as a prelude to the study, it is helpful to situate the study within some larger field of enquiry. The research question should always be spelled out, and not merely left for the reader to guess. The Methods section should provide the readers with sufficient detail about the study methods to be able to reproduce the study if so desired. Thus, this section should be specific, concrete, technical, and fairly detailed. The study setting, the sampling strategy used, instruments, data collection methods, and analysis strategies should be described.

In the case of qualitative research studies, it is also useful to tell the reader which research tradition the study utilizes and to link the choice of methodological strategies with the research goals [ 3 ]. The Results section is typically fairly straightforward and factual. All results that relate to the research question should be given in detail, including simple counts and percentages. Resist the temptation to demonstrate analytic ability and the richness of the dataset by providing numerous tables of non-essential results. The Discussion section allows the most freedom. This is why the Discussion is the most difficult to write, and is often the weakest part of a paper. Structured Discussion sections have been proposed by some journal editors [ 4 ]. While strict adherence to such rules may not be necessary, following a plan such as that proposed in Table 1 may help the novice writer stay on track.

References should be used wisely. Key assertions should be referenced, as well as the methods and instruments used. However, unless the paper is a comprehensive review of a topic, there is no need to be exhaustive. Also, references to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature technical reports , or to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided. Having the structure of the paper in place is a good start. However, there are many details that have to be attended to while writing.

Another concerns non-native writers of English: do have a native speaker edit the manuscript. A paper usually goes through several drafts before it is submitted. When revising a paper, it is useful to keep an eye out for the most common mistakes Table 2. If you avoid all those, your paper should be in good shape. Huth EJ. How to Write and Publish Papers in the Medical Sciences , 2nd edition. Browner WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research. Devers KJ , Frankel RM. Getting qualitative research published. Educ Health ; 14 : — Docherty M , Smith R. The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers. Br Med J ; : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Navbar Search Filter International Journal for Quality in Health Care This issue ISQua Journals Public Health and Epidemiology Books Journals Oxford Academic Mobile Microsite Search Term Search. Sign In. Issues More Content Advance articles Editor's Choice Supplements French Abstracts Portuguese Abstracts Spanish Abstracts Submit Author Guidelines Submission Site Open Access Purchase Alerts About About International Journal for Quality in Health Care About the International Society for Quality in Health Care Editorial Board Advertising and Corporate Services Journals Career Network Self-Archiving Policy Dispatch Dates Contact ISQua Journals on Oxford Academic Books on Oxford Academic.

ISQua Journals. Issues More Content Advance articles Editor's Choice Supplements French Abstracts Portuguese Abstracts Spanish Abstracts Submit Author Guidelines Submission Site Open Access Purchase Alerts About About International Journal for Quality in Health Care About the International Society for Quality in Health Care Editorial Board Advertising and Corporate Services Journals Career Network Self-Archiving Policy Dispatch Dates Contact ISQua Close Navbar Search Filter International Journal for Quality in Health Care This issue ISQua Journals Public Health and Epidemiology Books Journals Oxford Academic Microsite Search Term Search. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation.

Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Primacy of the research question. Structure of the paper. The basics. Journal Article. Writing a research article: advice to beginners. Perneger , Thomas V. Quality of Care Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Patricia M. Department of Community Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. PDF Split View Views. Cite Cite Thomas V. Select Format Select format. ris Mendeley, Papers, Zotero. Is more research necessary?

Write your answers down and keep them where you can see them while writing. This will help you focus on your goals. Your paper should be presented as clearly as possible. You want your readers to understand your research. You also do not want them to stop reading because the text is too technical. Keep in mind that your published research will be available in academic journals all over the world. This means that people of different languages will read it. Moreover, even with scientists, this could present a language barrier. According to a recent article , always remember the following points as you write:. Be sure to explain these findings using descriptive terms.

In addition, it is very important to have your paper edited by a native English speaking professional editor. There are many editing services available for academic manuscripts and publication support services. With the above in mind, you can now focus on structure. Scientific papers are organized into specific sections and each has a goal. We have listed them here. Some of these rules have been briefly discussed above; however, the study done by the authors does provide detailed explanations on all of them. So, do you follow any additional tips when structuring your research paper? Share them with us in the comments below! Thanks for sharing this post. Great information provided. I really appreciate your writing. I like the way you put across your ideas. Rate this article Cancel Reply.

Choosing research methodology Research design and research methodology Evidence-based research approach How RAxter can assist…. Successful research conduction requires proper planning and execution. While there are multiple reasons and aspects…. Tendencias actuales Cómo seleccionar un tema de investigación Cómo elegir la revista destino. El proceso…. Top 4 Guidelines for Health and Clinical Research Report. Top 10 Questions for a Complete Literature Review. All About ICMJE That Medical Journal Editors Should Know. Subscribe for free to get unrestricted access to all our resources on research writing and academic publishing including:. We hate spam too. We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you.

Thomas V. Perneger, Patricia M. Writing research papers does not come naturally to most of us. The typical research paper is a highly codified rhetorical form [ 1 , 2 ]. Knowledge of the rules—some explicit, others implied—goes a long way toward writing a paper that will get accepted in a peer-reviewed journal. A good research paper addresses a specific research question. The research question—or study objective or main research hypothesis—is the central organizing principle of the paper. This is perhaps obvious when the paper reports on a well planned research project. However, in applied domains such as quality improvement, some papers are written based on projects that were undertaken for operational reasons, and not with the primary aim of producing new knowledge.

In such cases, authors should define the main research question a posteriori and design the paper around it. Generally, only one main research question should be addressed in a paper secondary but related questions are allowed. If a project allows you to explore several distinct research questions, write several papers. For instance, if you measured the impact of obtaining written consent on patient satisfaction at a specialized clinic using a newly developed questionnaire, you may want to write one paper on the questionnaire development and validation, and another on the impact of the intervention. What is a good research question?

The key attributes are: i specificity; ii originality or novelty; and iii general relevance to a broad scientific community. The research question should be precise and not merely identify a general area of inquiry. A study does not necessarily have to break completely new ground, but it should extend previous knowledge in a useful way, or alternatively refute existing knowledge. Finally, the question should be of interest to others who work in the same scientific area. The latter requirement is more challenging for those who work in applied science than for basic scientists. While it may safely be assumed that the human genome is the same worldwide, whether the results of a local quality improvement project have wider relevance requires careful consideration and argument.

Once the research question is clearly defined, writing the paper becomes considerably easier. The paper will ask the question, then answer it. The key to successful scientific writing is getting the structure of the paper right. The basic structure of a typical research paper is the sequence of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sometimes abbreviated as IMRAD. Each section addresses a different objective. The authors state: i the problem they intend to address—in other terms, the research question—in the Introduction; ii what they did to answer the question in the Methods section; iii what they observed in the Results section; and iv what they think the results mean in the Discussion. In turn, each basic section addresses several topics, and may be divided into subsections Table 1.

In the Introduction, the authors should explain the rationale and background to the study. What is the research question, and why is it important to ask it? While it is neither necessary nor desirable to provide a full-blown review of the literature as a prelude to the study, it is helpful to situate the study within some larger field of enquiry. The research question should always be spelled out, and not merely left for the reader to guess. The Methods section should provide the readers with sufficient detail about the study methods to be able to reproduce the study if so desired.

Thus, this section should be specific, concrete, technical, and fairly detailed. The study setting, the sampling strategy used, instruments, data collection methods, and analysis strategies should be described. In the case of qualitative research studies, it is also useful to tell the reader which research tradition the study utilizes and to link the choice of methodological strategies with the research goals [ 3 ]. The Results section is typically fairly straightforward and factual. All results that relate to the research question should be given in detail, including simple counts and percentages. Resist the temptation to demonstrate analytic ability and the richness of the dataset by providing numerous tables of non-essential results.

The Discussion section allows the most freedom. This is why the Discussion is the most difficult to write, and is often the weakest part of a paper. Structured Discussion sections have been proposed by some journal editors [ 4 ]. While strict adherence to such rules may not be necessary, following a plan such as that proposed in Table 1 may help the novice writer stay on track. References should be used wisely. Key assertions should be referenced, as well as the methods and instruments used. However, unless the paper is a comprehensive review of a topic, there is no need to be exhaustive.

Also, references to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature technical reports , or to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided. Having the structure of the paper in place is a good start. However, there are many details that have to be attended to while writing. Another concerns non-native writers of English: do have a native speaker edit the manuscript. A paper usually goes through several drafts before it is submitted. When revising a paper, it is useful to keep an eye out for the most common mistakes Table 2. If you avoid all those, your paper should be in good shape. Huth EJ. How to Write and Publish Papers in the Medical Sciences , 2nd edition.

Browner WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research. Devers KJ , Frankel RM. Getting qualitative research published. Educ Health ; 14 : — Docherty M , Smith R. The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers. Br Med J ; : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Navbar Search Filter International Journal for Quality in Health Care This issue ISQua Journals Public Health and Epidemiology Books Journals Oxford Academic Mobile Microsite Search Term Search.

Sign In. Issues More Content Advance articles Editor's Choice Supplements French Abstracts Portuguese Abstracts Spanish Abstracts Submit Author Guidelines Submission Site Open Access Purchase Alerts About About International Journal for Quality in Health Care About the International Society for Quality in Health Care Editorial Board Advertising and Corporate Services Journals Career Network Self-Archiving Policy Dispatch Dates Contact ISQua Journals on Oxford Academic Books on Oxford Academic. ISQua Journals. Issues More Content Advance articles Editor's Choice Supplements French Abstracts Portuguese Abstracts Spanish Abstracts Submit Author Guidelines Submission Site Open Access Purchase Alerts About About International Journal for Quality in Health Care About the International Society for Quality in Health Care Editorial Board Advertising and Corporate Services Journals Career Network Self-Archiving Policy Dispatch Dates Contact ISQua Close Navbar Search Filter International Journal for Quality in Health Care This issue ISQua Journals Public Health and Epidemiology Books Journals Oxford Academic Microsite Search Term Search.

Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Primacy of the research question. Structure of the paper. The basics. Journal Article. Writing a research article: advice to beginners. Perneger , Thomas V. Quality of Care Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Patricia M. Department of Community Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. PDF Split View Views. Cite Cite Thomas V. Select Format Select format. ris Mendeley, Papers, Zotero.

enw EndNote. bibtex BibTex. txt Medlars, RefWorks Download citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Close Navbar Search Filter International Journal for Quality in Health Care This issue ISQua Journals Public Health and Epidemiology Books Journals Oxford Academic Microsite Search Term Search. Primacy of the research question A good research paper addresses a specific research question. Structure of the paper Once the research question is clearly defined, writing the paper becomes considerably easier. Table 1 Typical structure of a research paper.

Describe participants demographic, clinical condition, etc.

How To Make Perfect-Structured Research Paper: Best Tips,Quick Navigation

Web · A research paper structured in APA or MLA are the most popular ones. Introduction The importance of the problem. The description of the current situation. List Web · The paper will ask the question, then answer it. The key to successful scientific writing is getting the structure of the paper right. The basic structure of a typical research Web · The basic structure is outlined below: Author and author's professional affiliation is identified; Introduction; Literature review section (a discussion about Web · A typical research paper will contain the following sections in a sequence. (1) Introduction; (2) Material and methods and (3) Results and discussion. This is sometimes ... read more

Various sites offer a good deal of structure types on the Internet. Key assertions should be referenced, as well as the methods and instruments used. This means that people of different languages will read it. Appendixes — All supplementary material like charts and statistic materials that describes the situation in the most effective manner. Give us feedback X. When you are working on the research paper structure use the word cloud diagrams as a guidance.

Advance article alerts. In the Introduction, the authors should explain the rationale and background to the study. Structure of the paper. Manuscript Preparation Publishing Research How to Choose Best Research Methodology for Your Study Successful research conduction requires proper planning and execution. Oxford Structure of research article Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

Categories: